The UK has a two-tier tribunal system: a First-tier Tribunal and an Upper Tribunal.
Both of these are split into chambers, with 7 chambers at the First-tier level and 4 at the Upper Tribunal level.
Tribunals generally cover England and Wales, but some also have jurisdiction in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Some other tribunals sit outside this system, such as the Employment Tribunals for England and Wales.
More information on the Tribunals Service website
Role of tribunal judges
Tribunals hear evidence from witnesses, decide cases and have limited powers to impose fines and other penalties, depending on the jurisdiction of the case.
Tribunal judges can sit alone or with other, non-legally-qualified tribunal panel members.
The role of the judge if sitting with others, is to ensure that the panel works together and that the claimant or appellant gets a fair hearing.
Before the hearing the judge leads a preview of each case, allows each panel member to contribute and ensures that the line of questioning and key issues are agreed.
During the case the judge must ensure questioning is appropriate and that all relevant issues are covered. After the hearing the judge ensures any decision is supported by the evidence.
Tribunals often involve individuals putting their case without legal representation or assistance, so the system needs to be accessible. Tribunal judges often help to guide non-legally qualified parties through the procedures.
Non-legally qualified tribunal members
Tribunal panels may include non-legally qualified members who have expertise in different areas.
This is to ensure there is a full understanding of the facts of a case and that the parties involved get a fair hearing.
For example, on a case involving Disability Living Allowance, judges may sit with a medically-qualified member (generally a GP or consultant) and a member who has specialist knowledge of disabilities, such as a social worker, occupational therapist or physiotherapist.
More about judicial roles for non-legally qualified candidates